In this study, we investigated how flight responses of black swans are related to their distance from safety (i.e. water). As predicted, swans further from water initiated a flight response earlier than those nearer water. Furthermore, females tended to respond earlier than males, and were more likely to take flight when approached from the water than from land or parallel to the shore. This suggests that they are sensitive to the degree of danger, and that males are bolder than females when confronted with danger.
GUAY, P-J., LORENZ, R.D.A., ROBINSON, R.W., SYMONDS, M.R.E. & WESTON, M.A., (2013). Distance from water, sex and approach direction influence flight distances among habituated swans. Ethology 119: 552-558. doi: 10.1111/eth.12094
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